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[转帖] Based on history: Talk about French artillery reform in the late century -old war

发表于2024-03-04 03:30:43 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式

    TheBreaking news website European War in the late Middle Ages was frequent. Once the gunpowder was introduced, people discovered its huge potential in the war.In the early century war, the British had recorded records of gunpowder weapons during the battle of Crees and besieging Calais.However, the gunpowder weapons of the 14th century are still very primitive, not only small power, close range, inconvenience of transportation, but also a high probability of boring, so it is generally used in collaboration with siege weapons such as stones and siege.It was gradually mature at the end of the century.Based on the above shortcomings, before the 15th century, the French army rarely used artillery to fight.However, on the eve of the 1930s, European metallurgical technology and gunpowder production technology made great progress, so that artillery can directly destroy the defense of the city walls. This is what we call the "artillery revolution".

    The gunpowder originated from the consensus of the academic community in China. The gunpowder invented by ancient my country was made of nitrated gratitude, sulfur, carbon and other mixed.The gunpowder was widely used by ancient Chinese alchemy. During the Tang and Song dynasties, it was used in the military field due to its explosive characteristics. Later, gunpowder was introduced into Europe through the Arabs, and it shined in modern European history.

    Joseph (J. Needham) also mentioned in his "History of Chinese Science and Technology": "artillery and gunpowder were introduced to the West in the thirteenth or early fourteen centuries. The knowledge about gunpowder comes from the East, and it is likely to come from China, and it is likely to from China.It is known that the earliest document evidence of the European artillery was used in a decree issued in the Florence Parliament in 1326.The illustrations in the manuscript (Figure 1).

    Although the time to introduce gunpowder into Europe is too late, from the 14th century to modern times, the war of European -size and scale has never stopped, which has made gunpowder's attention from European countries and has developed rapidly in several centuries.Regarding the development of gunpowder and artillery, Engels mentioned: "In the first half of the fourteenth century, the European army began to use artillery first; this is a bulky artillery firing stone bullets, which is only suitable for siege.Light firearm.

    In 1364, Perugia in Italy had 500 light firearms, which was about 8 inches long; this firearm later developed into a pistol (that is, pistol, Toscana's Pisto in Toscana Province in Pisto in Toscana ProvinceAsian city named)."Although the gunpowder is passed from the East, it is obvious that Europe's development and use of it must be better. As William Menier said:" Even if the idea of gunpowder and artillery is introduced from China to Europe, in fact, Europe, EuropeIn terms of artillery design, people quickly surpass the Chinese and all other nations, and before World War II, they have always possess obvious advantages in this area."

    During the century -old war, artillery was used for siege.These early artillery shapes are very small and are made of iron or bronze.They are placed directly on the ground, raising their mouths with soil piles.Due to bulky and inefficient, they have almost no use in battle, but they are useful in the siege.From the drawing drawings drawn by Mira Mitt, we can see that the early European artillery technology is still immature. Not only is it small, but also the launch is not iron or stone bullets, but a spear -like bronze arrow feathered feathered feathers.The arrow is very close, and the power is not great. It is not enough to open the city wall. The main target may be wooden gates.

    Engels also pointed out: "The bright wheels are similar to our current gun; but due to the short body of the gun, the bright wheat can only shoot at a short distance, and the fuse is an irreplaceable obstacle that accurately aims; in addition, it alsoThere are various shortcomings. "It takes a long time whether it is a artillery or a light fireware loading ammunition, and it is bulky and expensive, so it can not replace the crossbow even in 1450."

    From the above materials, we can see that although the artillery has higher requirements in terms of operators' training, the maintenance and transportation of the weapon itself, and the proportion of gunpowder than the traditional siege weapon, its war potential is greater, not only not only, not onlyThe manufacturing method is simpler, and it can also be transported, deterred, and as a urban appliance. Therefore, in the next few hundred years, the technology of artillery has been updated.Sexual weapons.

    In the Centennial War, the British Army's use of artillery was earlier than the French army. According to the history of Fulusar's chronological records: "The British began to plunder from west of the Seine, but did not attack the city defense fortress.For example, siege cannon ''. They arrived at Paris (the western suburbs of Paris) along the left bank of the river, about 20 miles from the capital. "

    It is said that the British army used artillery to deter the French Arcades in the Cresia Battle, but this possibility remains to be questionable.Because the artillery at that time was huge and heavy, the carriage that could be moved by artillery in the field was not invented, so the artillery in the 14th century British army was generally used as siege appliances.At that time, the main role of artillery was to bombard the architecture and soldiers in the city and the city, and needed to cooperate with the use of the Trebuchet, Mangone, etc.

    Even so, the artillery before the 1930s cannot quickly capture a solid fortress stationed in a large number of soldiers. Just as the Galania enclosure recorded by Fulusar, "the King of England arrived in Galan.Make full preparation "The king does not want to attack rash, because he knows it is futile, and he wants to save military strength and ammunition.He said that he didn't care about time, and he wanted to starve the people inside unless the French king Philip came to fight him."In Normandy's Chronicles, we can also see: Russia's siege, July 31, 1418 to January 19, 1419, lasts for 6 months; Serburg Town was besieged in 1418Hungry was ransacked; in January 1424, the British besieged Geis City, but did not enter the city until February 1425.

    Although artillery has been used in siege in the 14th century, its power is far from reaching the degree of destroying the city walls. The siege war is still based on the reserve resources of the defense.It is this disadvantage that the potential of artillery has been covered by the achievements of the British archer. Although the British uses artillery many times while fighting with the French army, its scale has not been further expanded.Nor did it improve.

    The 15th century records of artillery became more and more detailed, and the role of artillery in war gradually reflected.Guns during this period have become more common, and the increase in gunping guns has also increased sharply. It is a very obvious evidence.The technical development of the 15th -century artillery is mainly due to the manufacturing of the gun itself, the improvement of gunpowder and the technology of loading:

    The 15th -century artillery is larger, and the Book of Faytes of Fayes and of Chyvalrye's "The Book of Faytes and of Chyvalrye" made by Christine de Pisan, which recorded the siege artillerySome details: There are four siege guns, one is called "Garyte", one is called "Rose", one is called "Senecque", and there is a "Senecque".Maye ".The first launch of the shells weighs 500 pounds, and the second door is 400 pounds. The remaining two doors weigh more than 200 pounds. In addition, many small guns are recorded.The power of the artillery is directly linked to the caliber. The larger the caliber means that there are more medicines, the heavier shells, and the greater lethality, but the heavier the shells, the more difficult to reach the higher the early speed, so the 15th century artillery craftsmen have begun to grow artillery.The cannon tube optimizes the structure of the artillery.

    The barrel is longer. Before the 1930s, the length of the artillery gun tube was about 1-1.5 times the diameter of the cannonball. Such artillery did not meet the poor accuracy, the initial speed of the firing was slow, and the threat to the enemy was less.Although the theory of aerodynamics was not developed at the time, after countless trials, European artillers found that the power of artillery was closer to the length of the gun tube.At the latest to 1430, the ratio of the length of the gun tube to the shell was 3: 1 or more.This not only adds accuracy, but also increases the preliminary speed and range.By the late 14th century, the production of the artillery body caused a large iron plate to cause cylindrical, or a wide iron belt screwed out to form a cylinder, just like the coil of the spring.About 1420, the artisans invented a new technology that made the artillery tube extended to become possible: they used a long iron rod to build a large artillery ⑤.These iron rods are fixed around the cylindrical core shaft, and then reinforced with the heated iron ring. After the iron ring is cooled, it will shrink and tightly wrapped around the barrel, just like the hoop of the barrel.

    The filling method is simplified.Early artillery needed to fill the fifth of the fifths behind the artillery room, and then one -fifth of the latter fifths was emptied.EssenceIn order to obtain as close as possible (the purpose is to minimize the loss of stress), it is necessary to seal the wet mud mud mixed with straw into the seal and wait until the mud is dry.This kind of artillery must be reused until it is cooled. Therefore, the previous artillery firing frequency is very low. A skilled gunner can fire 6 to 8 artillery shells a day.With the growth of the cannons, the gunpowder room has more space to provide sufficient pressure on the shells. Therefore, the mud sealing cannon mouth is no longer needed, so that the artillery loading speed is accelerated and the firing frequency is increased.

    Change of smelting technology.During this period, the reform of a European metallurgical technology has greatly reduced the price of iron.In the process of purification of the ore, the blackstones were added to the melting agent to increase the temperature required by the slag melting. This technology was applied to the development of the hot furnace, which changed the internal molecular structure during the refining process.Increase the output of iron.The increase in iron production means that the cost of artillery has decreased significantly, and it is possible to build a artillery force.The advancement of metallurgical technology not only led to an increase in the number of artillery, but also greatly improved its quality.Before the 15th century, artillery was basically made from copper alloy and cooked iron. During this period, the technique of producing cast iron was still in its infancy. The use of cast iron on artillery was an important milestone in the history of ironmaking.

    In 1375, it was mentioned in Caon's record of artillery manufacturing: In order to manufacture and add agricultural cannons, the 2110-pound forging iron and 200 pounds of steel were used.Espendne Plat) forged.

    At a certain stage, it may be that in the early 15th century, people discovered the process of producing iron in a melting state, that is, cast iron.-iron) Cannon, the throwing stones weigh about 20 pounds. "After the 15th century, the hardness and intensity of the artillery were improved, and the risk of bombing was greatly reduced.

    The improvement of gunpowder, Europe found the formula of perfect proportion of gunpowder as early as 1400, but the method of making gunpowder was very primitive: mixing nitigraphy, sulfur, and charcoal was sieved without processing.If the gunpowder is configured in advance, they will make them layered during transportation.Therefore, before the 1920s, the gunners needed to place these three materials separately, and they were configured at the scene to reduce the efficiency of combat.And this powder -like gunpowder is vulnerable to moisture and makes it impossible to use it normally.

    After 1420, the Europeans began to use "granular" gunpowder. This kind of gunpowder was first added to the liquid when mixing three materials to form a piece of cake or brick.Small particles.This granular gunpowder does not cause the separation of each component during transportation, and there is sufficient space to make it quickly burn, and the power is three times more powerful than the powder -like gunpowder.

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