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[转帖] African e -commerce, have you done it?(two)

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发表于2024-03-04 02:10:44 | 只看该作者 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式
    

    In 2022,Hot news website the number of e -commerce users in Africa was less than 4.00 million, and the proportion was still small compared to the total population of 1.4 billion.However, it is predicted that by 2027, the size of African e -commerce consumers will reach 600 million. Therefore, African small and medium -sized enterprises will still do something.


    At present, there are still the following obstacles to the expansion of e -commerce in Africa: insufficient financial funds and digital technologies, lack of loopholes in regulations, low acceptance of digital payment, the challenges of logistics and delivery, and consumer habits have not yet formed and confidence.


    The cornerstone of e -commerce growth


    Creating a favorable environment for e -commerce will increase customer trust. At the same time, encouraging small and medium -sized enterprises to adopt e -commerce on a large scale, which requires three key cornerstones, including: formulating and implementing strong e -commerce policies and regulations; widely adopting security, instant real -time, instant real -time, real -time, real -time, real -time, instant instant.And convenient digital payment; and efficient and reliable logistics and delivery infrastructure.


    Policies, regulations and implementation


    Policies, regulations, and its effective implementation play a key role in promoting e -commerce, and by establishing consumer confidence, protecting customers, and clarifying procedures for online transactions with small and medium -sized enterprises.As far as laws and regulations are concerned, the development of e -commerce involves business, finance and transportation, and all need to be adjusted simultaneously.


    At present, African countries lack laws and regulations in e -commerce and electronic transactions, personal data privacy and protection, network security and intellectual property rights, and there is a problem of relatively old, loopholes or scattered problems.Sex environment.In addition, in order to promote regional e -commerce development, countries need to give priority to the coordination of e -commerce -related policies in some countries so that small and medium -sized enterprises can trade in relatively consistent rather than conflict in cross -border online transactions.



    E -commerce regulations can clarify the rules of online transactions, provide clear guidance for small and medium -sized enterprises for online sales, and have played an important role in promoting e -commerce at the national and cross -border levels.


    In 2012, a member of the Southern Africa Development Community passed the draft of the "Southern Africa Development Community Electronic Trading and E -commerce Model Law", which aims to create a security legal environment for electronic transactions and e -commerce, and improve the level of regional e -commerce.It is worth noting,South Africa is the only country that clearly determines the development of e -commerce development and mobile routes.



    Egypt's e -commerce policy has 6 key points, and Rwanda policy has 9 key areas.Among them, Rwanda is currently considered to be one of the most conducive to the business supervision environment.




    Data privacy and protection regulations clarify the provisions that enterprises must follow when collecting, storing, managing, and processing personal data.These regulations help enterprises to develop data protection measures and reassure consumers.With the online use and popularization of personal data, network security laws and standards ensure that companies clearly understand how to take measures to protect customers and prevent fraud.


    It is estimated that the loss caused by Africa due to cyber attacks each year is $ 3.5 billion.Although the following countries have network security laws, most countries are facing the problems of insufficient digital network security infrastructure, insufficient policy preparation, and lack of institutional supervision.This means that either a lack of network security agreement or insufficient implementation.According to data from the International Interpol,90%of African organizations operate without any cyber security measures, and the threat of cyber attack threats in the most developed e -commerce markets such as Nigeria, South Africa and Kenya is still high.



    In the context of cross -border e -commerce, network security occupies an important position in the 2063 agenda of the African Union and its digital transformation strategy.West Africa Economic Community(Ecowas)Recently, the West African Cyber Security Promotional Joint Platform aims to achieve unanimous opinions in regional network security and data sovereignty.


    In addition, in order to establish trust in e -commerce, personal data privacy and protection are essential.Except for Ethiopia's personal data -related laws in the drafting stage, other personal data protection laws are available in other research markets.


    At the national level, Egypt has one of the strictest cyber security and data protection laws; Kenya not only has a clear network security strategy, but also explains in detail all network security elements from governance, implementation, risk assessment to capacity building, but also updated.Regulations on business purposes, marketing, data localization, and cross -border data transfer; Ghana also has strong network security and data protection laws.Update relevant regulations, such as the "Personal Information Protection Law"; Nigeria has strong and clear data protection regulations; Tanzania passed the "Personal Data Protection Law" in 2022;Some elements were revised in 2022.


    Consumer protection and electronic transactions aims to manage e -commerce transactions and protect customers.In 2021, only 25 African countries had consumer protection and electronic trading regulations.Egypt, South Africa, and Nigeria have formulated a powerful and relatively good implementation of consumer protection and electronic transaction laws.Ghana's consumer protection law is scattered, and various aspects are supervised by different regulatory agencies.In this case, a comprehensive consumer protection law supervised by a single regulatory agency is very important.



    Entrepreneurs and small and medium -sized enterprises have expressed that intellectual property rights are very important.According to the four indicators of intellectual property protection, patent protection, trademark protection and copyright protection, the average score of the country in 2022 is below 5.4, Nigeria and Ethiopia scores the lowest, which indicates that the above national property rights protection is insufficient.



    PricewaterhouseCoopers's assessment of Nigeria's intellectual property protection shows that Nigeria's consumer goods market is full of counterfeit products, and intellectual property laws are almost unreasonable. This mainly comes from the high -end economy accounted for relatively high economy, the legislation is overdue, and the enforcement mechanism lacks.



    With the booming development of e -commerce, the government is re -evaluating how to supervise online enterprises, e -commerce platforms, and social business enterprises.Taking Jumia as an example, in February 2023, COMESA announced that Jumia is responsible for the product sold by a third party on its website. The company must ensure the accuracy of the seller and product information and establish a conflict settlement mechanism.


    Social e -commerce is more difficult to regulate, especially non -formal social e -commerce.As a digital social network of point -to -point, social media platforms are not responsible for the goods traded on their applications.However, countries such as Egypt still supervise the tax levy taxes from the Internet celebrities, creators, etc., which also means that social business may become the next taxation target.Similarly, only by further updating online trading regulations, e -commerce sales of their own brand websites can be regulated.In Ethiopia, it is difficult for e -commerce companies to pay taxes due to lack of updated VAT regulations.


    It is important that the regulations should have a consultation nature, involving the participation of the public and private sector, reflecting the market conditions, and serving the protection of enterprises and consumers, not to restrict the development of the e -commerce industry.


    Digital payment


    Digital payment is the key to digitalization of online transactions.Although African digital payment has grown steadily, the payment of goods is still the preferred payment method for many small, medium and micro enterprises.


    Among all countries in research, at least 1/4 of the enterprises say that cash payment is still the main choice.Egypt has a strong banking industry. Ghana mobile currency is frequently used, but cash is still the main payment method.In addition, Ghana began to tax on P2P's mobile currency transactions in 2022, and then P2P transfer fell by 25 %, which may be the reason for the increase in cash usage.



    In Ethiopia, the tolerance of regular finance is still low. Until 2020, the market opens allow mobile operators to provide payment services, and mobile currencies have begun to popularize.Kenya mobile currency is frequently used, and more than 60 % of companies expressed their tendency to pay through mobile currency.


    In Nigeria and South Africa, 67 % and 39 % of companies have expressed their preference for bank transfer payment -these two markets have strong banking industry, especially South Africa, and 60 % of the population has debit cards, 10Udn the population has a credit card.The formal financial inclusiveness and the informal of the economy have affected people's payment choices.In addition, the cost of unreliable Internet quality, unstable power infrastructure, and the cost of handheld equipment and mobile services are all obstacles to the development of digital payment.


    It is worth noting that the three key decisive factor affecting the digital payment of e -commerce include:The burden of digital payment, the convenience and interoperability of digital payment, and trust in payment methods.




    Fast, efficient and secure digital payment is the key driving factor of e -commerce.However, in the market where purchasing power is limited and consumers tend to buy low -cost commodities, trading costs are a hindrance.Property capacity, tax regulations, and payment system costs will affect the commercial pricing of digital transactions.


    The government may tax digital transactions and use it as taxes on the offenders, such as Kenya and Ghana taxes on mobile currency transactions.For most African small and medium -sized enterprises, although digital payment may provide high efficiency and security, due to the existence of transaction costs, they will give up digital payment.


    The payment systems of different countries have different financing models and will have different effects on burdens.Ghana real -time payment(GIP)The system is a real -time bank payment transfer service, and the cost recovery model is strict. Banks collect 1%of all transaction amounts from consumers as expenses. Among them, 30%of the cost flows to the Ghana bank payment and settlement system(GHIPSS)The remaining 70%is reserved by financial institutions.Nigerian bank payment(NIP)The settlement system also adopts a cost recovery model, but allows shareholders to have moderate profits.



    In the financial system, payment interoperability refers to the ability of digital payment between the two accounts held by different institutions.Instant and interoperable payment systems are a retail payment system that can process retail transactions in real time between all providers.


    In order to make the e -commerce prosperity and development, a good operating payment system needs to be established. From mobile phone currency to bank transfer and credit cards to accept and immediately handle different types of digital payment.In addition, the payment gateway, as a key promotional factor for interoperability, is an important part of e -commerce. Through the encrypted sensitive payment information, it promotes the transmission between online enterprises and digital payment service providers, and achieves secure online transactions.


    In African countries, Nigeria and Ghana provide multilateral interoperability to allow transactions between different payment systems.Tanzania has achieved great success in promoting interoperability.Tanzania is one of the earliest markets that allow users to use different mobile phones to carry out seamless transactions.In 2022, Tanzania launched Tanzania's instant payment system(Tips)It has achieved multilateral interoperability, but its payment gateway is still limited, and e -commerce needs to be supported.


    Other countries still have a large interoperability gap.In Kenya, interoperability is mainly based on bilateral agreements between financial service providers. Market competition and lack of shared infrastructure have led to inefficient services.In Ethiopia, the government provides a national payment system, but still needs more payment gateway to ensure interoperability.


    Open application programming interface(API)Bring new opportunities for mutual operations.Africa is promoting the growth of open banks by opening APIs, and supports mobile operators and fintech companies to connect their payment infrastructure to reach merchants and small and medium -sized enterprises.Pan -African Bank ECOBANK has opened its infrastructure to third parties, and in other markets such as Nigeria, regulators have begun to supervise financial data under open banks.



    Trust is a key component of the preferences for payment methods for small and medium -sized enterprises.The degree of familiarity with payment methods is the third most important decisive factor in payment preferences.The strong implementation of the Consumer Protection Law of Cyber Security Law, Electronic Trading Law and online trade is the key to digital payment trust.



    In many African markets, the lack of standardization of retail products has brought about many problems of quality and false advertisements. Consumers do not trust are the norm.In this case, the delivery of goods also guarantees that products with different quality can be returned at the time of delivery to reduce concerns about refunds.For digital payment at the sales point, a simple, powerful and trusted refund mechanism needs to be established.In the case of informal social business, cash is still the main payment method. Social media such as WhatsApp and Facebook are actively investing in and cooperating with financial service providers to promote the popularization of African e -commerce payment.Even if a refund mechanism is established, this process is needed simply. In the survey, more than 1/3 consumers find it difficult to return. This problem needs to be resolved in time.



    Logistics and delivery


    In Africa, due to the incomplete road network and the city and rural communities, it costs high to deliver goods in a timely, complete, and non -destructive manner.Fast logistics mostly relies on expensive private express services. The cost of national postal services is lower and covered with widespread coverage, but the speed is slower and reliable.


    In order to overcome the problem of insufficient delivery services, there are many kinds of delivery mechanisms for e -commerce shopping in different countries in Africa.For example, many buyers pick up the goods directly from the seller and in Ghana, Kenya and South Africa. This is the main way for the performance of small and medium -sized enterprises to perform orders. In Egypt, Ethiopia and Nigeria, more small and medium -sized enterprises choose to deliver to the door.



    Among the other delivery methods, there are relatively few distribution points such as street corner stores, with only 17%of micro -enterprises, 24%of small enterprises, and 32%of medium -sized enterprises. This method has adopted this method.



    Although it is more convenient to mail goods to buyers, small and medium -sized enterprises in the core market still face many challenges related to delivery.Including lack of logistics transportation capacity, high transportation costs, loss of goods or damage, slow delivery time, etc.




    Road congestion, poor road quality, and lack of delivery routes are the main reasons for delays and cost increases.On the whole, the road infrastructure in Africa is poor. Only less than 50%of the roads are asphalt roads. 85%of rural roads cannot be used in the rainy season.


    In Nigeria, road congestion has caused delays, coupled with the cancellation of fuel subsidies and poor road quality, the last miles of delivery challenge is huge.Similar problems occur in Ghana and Ethiopia. The low car ownership rate and insufficient delivery solutions have made it difficult for the last mile of logistics transportation and delivery.Although South Africa has the best road infrastructure and Tanzania has the widest road network, the last mile challenge still exists.Recently, Egypt has invested in transportation infrastructure strongly, which is expected to improve the development of the relatively mature e -commerce market.




    Unclear home address and postal code system increased the challenges and costs of delivery of goods.In the absence of clear addresses, it is difficult to find customers, resulting in delay in logistics, increasing costs, and reducing consumers' trust in e -commerce.Experts say that the addressing system may be more important than infrastructure, which constitutes a challenge for companies sold through websites or social media because they need to afford logistics costs.Although e -commerce logistics partners and the e -commerce market have tried standardized logistics costs, this is not commercially unsustainable.


    A solution of the address system is to use the pick -up point, such as street -corner shops, etc., which is a feasible choice when the cost or excessive cost is too high.The survey results show that in the six markets, the pick -up point is to use the lowest frequency of logistics transportation delivery.Egypt(6 %)This may be because most small and medium -sized enterprises use the method of delivery to home, so the pick -up point has no value -added to the e -commerce supply chain.



    According to the scale and nature of the enterprise, e -commerce companies can choose to handle the delivery of logistics or outsourcing to third parties.


    In order to overcome the delivery challenge, a series of logistics and delivery methods have been deployed in the e -commerce market in many regions.Business mode includesAsset method, Such as having warehouses and logistics teams and directly hiring logistics personnel;Franchise modeEnterprises can choose to cooperate with independent third -party logistics delivery providers.Jumia Logistics, hundreds of management warehouses and logistics third-party partners, and Konga's logistics department K-EXPress has invested a lot of investment on its own logistics team.


    Self -operated logistics delivery solutions allow the market to have greater control over its operations, but related costs may be high.In Kenya, Twiga Foods has used a third -party delivery solution to replace its self -operated logistics business supported by rental trucks. The company is expected to reduce the logistics cost by 40 % through this change.


    With the lightweight development of the e -commerce market, the trend of "crowdsourcing for e -commerce logistics delivery" has gradually appeared, that is, transport and logistics providers can cooperate with e -commerce platforms or specialized logistics providers and accept delivery as needed.Batch delivery instead of decentralized orders provides a huge opportunity for the "crowdsourcing mode".


    The survey results show,In the region, most small and medium -sized enterprises are managed by themselves, regardless of their size.Except for Nigeria and South Africa, this model is relatively mainstream in each country.Among the companies that are mainly delivered through self -operated logistics, Ghana(twenty two%)The third -party delivery service outsourcing rate is the lowest, followed by Ethiopia(28%),Egypt(41%), Then Kenya(43%)Essence



    According to the UN trade and development conference(Unctad)Data, by 2025, e -commerce is expected to increase US $ 180 billion for Africa's GDP.In terms of demand, the growing young population and the growing middle class have promoted the maturity of the online retail market of SMEs. In addition, e -commerce has developed rapidly in urban areas and insufficient services in rural areas.


    For small and medium -sized enterprises, through e -commerce trade, it has improved profitability, created employment, and serves economic development more effectively. It still has very broad development space.With the African Free Trade Zone(AFCFTA)Promoting the opportunity to use e -commerce to achieve regional income is even more huge.


    As far as obstacles are concerned, there are insufficient funds and digital skills, including small and medium -sized enterprises, insufficient judicial practice related to e -commerce, the continuous preferences of Africa's cash payment and lower trust in digital payment, and the basic and reasonable price of logistics transportation and delivery foundation.Insufficient facilities -these factors further affect consumer trust.




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